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Our philosophy on any project is to provide clients with superior value through projects that are distinctive and smart. By the second half of the 16th century, it persisted mostly as a weapon for sportive competition Schulfechten , and possibly in knightly duels.
Distinct "bastard sword" hilt types developed during the first half of the 16th century. Ewart Oakeshott distinguishes twelve different types.
By the late 16th century, early forms of the developed-hilt appear on this type of sword. Beginning about , the Swiss sabre schnepf in Switzerland began to replace the straight longsword, inheriting its hilt types, and the longsword had fallen out of use in Switzerland by In southern Germany, it persisted into the s, but its use also declined during the second half of the 16th century.
There are two late examples of longswords kept in the Swiss National Museum, both with vertically grooved pommels and elaborately decorated with silver inlay, and both belonging to Swiss noblemen in French service during the late 16th and early 17th century, Gugelberg von Moos and Rudolf von Schauenstein.
The swords grouped as "longswords" for the purposes of this article are united by their being intended for two-handed use. In terms of blade typology, they do not form a single category.
In the Oakeshott typology of blade morphology, "longswords" figure as a range of sub-types of the corresponding single-handed sword types.
The expression fechten mit dem langen schwert "fighting with the long sword" in the German school of fencing denotes the style of fencing which uses both hands at the hilt; fechten mit dem kurzen schwert "fighting with the short sword" is used in half-sword fighting, with one hand gripping the blade.
The two terms are largely equivalent to "unarmoured fighting" blossfechten and "armoured fencing" fechten im harnisch.
Codified systems of fighting with the longsword existed from the later 14th century, with a variety of styles and teachers each providing a slightly different take on the art.
Hans Talhoffer, a midth-century German fightmaster, is probably the most prominent, using a wide variety of moves, most resulting in wrestling.
The longsword was a quick, effective, and versatile weapon capable of deadly thrusts, slices, and cuts. The weapon may be held with one hand during disarmament or grappling techniques.
In a depiction of a duel, individuals may be seen wielding sharply pointed longswords in one hand, leaving the other hand open to manipulate the large dueling shield.
Another variation of use comes from the use of armour. Half-swording was a manner of using both hands, one on the hilt and one on the blade, to better control the weapon in thrusts and jabs.
This versatility was unique, as multiple works hold that the longsword provided the foundations for learning a variety of other weapons including spears , staves , and polearms.
What is known of combat with the longsword comes from artistic depictions of battle from manuscripts and the Fechtbücher of Medieval and Renaissance Masters.
Therein the basics of combat were described and, in some cases, depicted. The German school of swordsmanship includes the earliest known longsword Fechtbuch, a manual from approximately , known as GNM a.
This manual, unfortunately for modern scholars, was written in obscure verse. It was through students of Liechtenauer, like Sigmund Ringeck , who transcribed the work into more understandable prose  that the system became notably more codified and understandable.
The Italian school of swordsmanship was the other primary school of longsword use. The manuscript by Fiore dei Liberi presents a variety of uses for the longsword.
Like the German manuals, the weapon is most commonly depicted and taught with both hands on the hilt. However, a section on one-handed use is among the volume and demonstrates the techniques and advantages, such as sudden additional reach, of single-handed longsword play.
Both schools declined in the late 16th century, with the later Italian masters forgoing the longsword and focusing primarily on rapier fencing.
The last known German manual to include longsword teaching was that of Jakob Sutor , published in In Italy, spadone , or longsword, instruction lingered on despite the popularity of the rapier, at least into the midth century Alfieri's Lo Spadone of , with a late treatise of the "two handed sword" by one Giuseppe Colombani , a dentist in Venice dating to A tradition of teaching based on this has survived in contemporary French and Italian stick fighting.
The lack of significant torso and limb protection leads to the use of a large amount of cutting and slicing techniques in addition to thrusts.
These techniques could be nearly instantly fatal or incapacitating, as a thrust to the skull, heart, or major blood vessel would cause massive trauma.
Similarly, strong strikes could cut through skin and bone, effectively amputating limbs. The hands and forearms are a frequent target of some cuts and slices in a defensive or offensive manoeuvre, serving both to disable an opponent and align the swordsman and his weapon for the next attack.
Harnischfechten , or "armoured fighting" German kampffechten , or Fechten in Harnisch zu Fuss , literally "fighting in armour on foot" , depicts fighting in full plate armour.
The increased defensive capability of a man clad in full plate armour caused the use of the sword to be drastically changed. While slashing attacks were still moderately effective against infantry wearing half-plate armour, cutting and slicing attacks against an opponent wearing plate armour were almost entirely ineffective in providing any sort of slashing wound as the sword simply could not cut through the steel, although a combatant could aim for the chinks in a suit of armour, sometimes to great effect.
The later hardened plate armours, complete with ridges and roping, posed a threat against the careless attacker.
It is considered possible for strong blows of the sword against plate armour to damage the blade of the sword, potentially rendering it much less effective at cutting and producing only a concussive effect against the armoured opponent.
To overcome this problem, swords began to be used primarily for thrusting. The weapon was used in the half-sword, with one or both hands on the blade.
Also, the hand on the blade increases its rigidity which is advantageous when thrusting. This technique combines the use of the sword with wrestling, providing opportunities to trip, disarm, break, or throw an opponent and place them in a less offensively and defensively capable position.
During half-swording, the entirety of the sword works as a weapon, including the pommel and crossguard.